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BIENVENIDOS A A.C.H.A.

 

HOLANDO ARGENTINO: EL PORQUE DE UN NOMBRE

Originaria de Holanda, específicamente del norte, de la provincia de Friesland. Su nombre común en casi toda América – Holstein– pareciera sugerir ser nativa del ducado de Holstein, provincia del norte de Alemania, pero no es verdad. El nombre oficial de la raza nace del compuesto Holstein Friesina, resultado de la unión de la Asociaciones de Criadores de Holstein y la Asociación Fiesina de Holanda en 1885. El “Bos Primigenius”, que se caracteriza por su cabeza larga y delgada, es la especie original de la cual desciende esta raza. Animal inmenso y poderoso de dos metros y pico de altura. Los cuernos eran largos y finos, curvándose hacia delante en el medio y terminando con las puntas apenas hacia arriba.

Es de las más antiguas que se conocen. Algunos aseguran que fue domesticada en el norte de Europa, pero hay autores que creen reconocerla en las escenas de cultivo y vida familiar en pinturas del Egipto Antiguo.

Descendencia en América del Norte

De 1861 a 1875 se exportaron de Holanda para Massachussets, Estados Unidos, los primeros animales que se mantuvieron puros. En la siguiente década, o sea de 1875 a 1885, este país importó 7.757 cabezas de las cuales desciende la mayoría de los animales de esta raza en toda América. Sin embargo, este fluido se detuvo posteriormente al no poder importarse más animales de Holanda (excepto en 1905 que se importaron algunos) por que la Holstein Friesian Association estableció un derecho de inscripción elevadísimo para los animales importados, aunque algunos autores mencionan como traba la existencia de aftosa en los animales holandeses.

En la Argentina


En nuestro país fue introducida en 1880, desde Holanda, por el Teniente General Julio A. Roca y su Ministro del Exterior, Dr. Felipe Yofré. Estos primeros animales fueron afincados en el norte de Córdoba y cerca de Pergamino, en Buenos Aires. Otro de los núcleos recaló en Santa Fe y rápidamente adquirió fama, especialmente en la zona de Rosario.

Don Vicente L. Casares, en su establecimiento de campo San Martín en Cañuelas, fue de los primeros, en esa década, en criar ejemplares de la raza lechera, posteriormente conocida como Holando Argentino, para el abastecimiento de leche a la fábrica "LA MARTONA". Estanislao S. Zeballos, político y diplomático de fuste decía "... Mencionaré como un modelo en la República Argentina y lo sería en cualquier país extranjero, la calidad y forma de venta de los productos de La Martona, propiedad del señor Vicente L. Casares, de Cañuelas..." (Vidas Consagradas, página 46)

El progreso de la raza fue lento y arduo, un camino difícil que les tocó recorrer a los primeros criadores que realmente debieron tener mucho cariño a su trabajo para superarlo. La introducción del overo negro correspondió a una época cuando todavía no había ambiente para las actividades que origina la industria lechera, por lo tanto no existía ningún interés en considerar a los bovinos como productores de leche por excelencia .Para la 7ª Exposición Nacional organizada por la Sociedad Rural Argentina, en mayo de 1890, se presentaron por primera vez en concurso un gran número de reproductores holandeses, muchos de ellos enviados por el gobierno de los Países Bajos. El total de animales expuesto fue de 68, y según crónicas recogidas en el libro del Dr. Mauricio Hellman, a “la raza Holando Argentino” se le auguraba un gran porvenir al reconocérsele una abundante producción láctea, unida a una buena conformación como res.

Para impulsar, encausar y despertar interés por el control de la producción de leche de las vacas como guía segura de selección, la Sociedad Rural Argentina, comenzó a implementar –simultáneamente con la Exposición de 1902– concursos de vacas lecheras donde la raza demostró en la mayoría de las competencias, una superioridad apreciable.
En los registros genealógicos del año 1910 están asentados los primeros animales de pedigrí, correspondiéndole el número 1 al macho Butterman VOS 7130 y el 01 a la hembra Karla VOS 6606, ambos procedentes de Alemania e introducidos por San Juan de Pereyra.

En la exposición del Centenario de 1910 se introdujeron nuevas sangres de Holando y Alemania. El señor Elbert Weller, un holandés que trajo animales de su país para la exposición y que no pudo venderlos, se afincó definitivamente en el país y fundó el establecimiento “La Overa-Negra” en El Fortín, Córdoba.

En 1911 el Ministerio de Agricultura empezó a realizar tentativas para implantar un control regular de las vacas lecheras, medida que jugó un papel trascendental en la formación y difusión del Holando Argentino.

En 1914 la Sociedad Rural Argentina adoptó una importante medida para el avance de la raza al llevar, por intermedio de su Comisión de Fomento de la Industria Lechera, los primeros registros genealógicos preparatorios de vacas de producción y anotar –previo control– todos los animales importados o de origen importados.

Un nuevo aporte del extranjero se produjo con motivo de la realización de la Exposición de 1920. Allí entraron una gran cantidad de animales provenientes de Holanda y EE.UU. y hasta 1929 la importación fue casi continua agregándose a aquellos países, reproductores de Nueva Zelanda y Alemania entre otros.

Hasta 1917 todos los bovinos holandeses tenían la designación genérica de “Holstein” no obstante que hasta 1908 competía con las razas Friburgo y Flamenca en una misma pista, pero desde 1918 se establecieron 2 categorías que se juraban separadamente: una para el ganado Holstein (americano) y otra para la holandesa. En 1921 se identificó a la raza como Holando Friesian, pero con tantas variedades y divisiones que llegaron a componer cuatro categorías diferentes.

En 1924 la Sociedad Rural Argentina, como resultado de la gestión promovida por varios criadores como el Dr. Yofré, Villanueva y Genoud, fusionó los registros genealógicos para las diferentes variedades en uno solo bajo la denominación Holando Argentino. Así se decidió unificar los registros y dar una denominación propia a la raza holandesa criada en el país. Fue iniciado con el nombre de Registro de la Raza Holando Argentino, y en él, todos los animales de origen holandés y sus variedades, sea cual fuera su procedencia al ser inscriptos en estos libros genealógicos perdían su denominación para adoptar el de Holando Argentino.

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